Volume 8, Issue 4, August 2020, Page: 47-52
New Data on the Current Distribution of Barbary Macaque Macaca sylvanus (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae) in Algeria
Mourad Ahmim, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University of Bejaia, Bejaia, Algeria
Abed Labiod, National Park of Taza, Jijel, Algeria
Received: Aug. 21, 2020;       Accepted: Sep. 1, 2020;       Published: Sep. 17, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.sjams.20200804.11      View  117      Downloads  59
Abstract
The Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus (Linnaeus, 1758), is the only species of non-human primate living in Morocco and Algeria, North Africa. It is classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES 2018). Algeria is a country with a singularly complex topography, the vegetation falls into three zones which correspond to the three major physical zones: the forested Tell Atlas Mountains, the Highlands, and the Saharan Atlas. The Barbary macaque was only found on the northeastern part of the forested Tell Atlas Mountains a massive area extensively dissected into mountains, plains, and basins. Its population was fragmented to nine small subpopulations in three regions (Chiffa, Grande Kabylie and Petite Kabylie) but disappeared from six localities. The geographical distribution of the three remaining three subpopulation established in 1984 shows that the numbers vary from 3400 to 5100 individuals but these later years, few studies on population dynamics and the distribution of the species have been conducted in Algeria. Here we present the updated data that which show that the monkey tends to move from West to East (probably depending on food availability, or repeated fires) from Chiffa (36°44’9680’’N 2°74’0872’’E) in Chrea national park to Salah Bouchaour locality (36°59’8668’’N-6°85’3913’’E) in the wilaya of Skikda, with an estimated population of individuals varying from 3229 to 3888 in the national parks and from 186 to 200 individuals in the new localities studied. Better monitoring of the populations of this emblematic species and especially the monitoring of its movements is strongly recommended because by occupying new regions they could be victims of attacks from residents, especially since the monkey feeds on their crops and orchards.
Keywords
Barbary Macaque, Macaca sylvanus, Geographical Distribution, Algeria, Conservation
To cite this article
Mourad Ahmim, Abed Labiod, New Data on the Current Distribution of Barbary Macaque Macaca sylvanus (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae) in Algeria, Science Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp. 47-52. doi: 10.11648/j.sjams.20200804.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Fooden J (1982) Ecogeographic segregation of macaque species. Primates. 23, 574-579.
[2]
Joleaud L (1931) Le rôle des singes dans les traditions populaires Nord-Africaines. Journal de la Société des Africaniste. 1: 117–150.
[3]
Fa JE (1984) Structure and dynamics of the Barbary macaque population in Gibraltar, pp. 263 306. //; Fa. J. E., ed. The Barbary Macaque: A Case Study in Conservation. Plenum, New York.
[4]
Butynski TM, Cortes J, Waters S, Fa J, Hobbelink ME, Van Lavieren E, Belbachir F, Cuzin F, De Smet K, Mouna M, De Iongh H, Menard N &Camperio-Ciani A (2008) Macaca sylvanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12561A3359140.
[5]
Camperio Ciani A (1986) La Macacasylvanus in Marocco: sopravvivenza o estinzione. Osservationipersonali e datistorico-demografici. Antropologia Comtemporanea 9 (2): 117-132.
[6]
Menard N and Vallet D (1986) Population dynamics of Macaca sylvanus in Algeria: an 8-years study. American Journal of Primatology. 30: 101-118. 1996. Demography and ecology.
[7]
Scheffrahn W, Menard N. Vallet D, and. Gaci B (1993) Ecology, demography, and population genetics of Barbary macaques in Algeria. Primates. 34:381-394.
[8]
Seurat LG (1936) Exploration zoologique de l’Algérie de 1830 à 1930. Ed Masson et Cie-Paris.
[9]
Fooden J (2007) Systematic review of the Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus (Linnaeus, 1758). Fieldiana Zoology, 1-60.
[10]
Menard N, Scheffrahn W, Vallet D, Zidane C and Reber C (1992) Application of blood protein electrophoresis and DNA fingerprinting to the analysis of paternity and social characteristics of wild Barbary macaques. In paternity in primates genetic Tests and theories. Implication of human DNA Fingerprinting (eds. Martin RD, Dixson AF, Wickings EJ. pp. 155-174. Karger, Basel.
[11]
Von Segesser F, Ménard N, Gaci B, Martin D (1999) Genetic differentiation within and between isolated Algerian subpopulations of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus): evidence from microsatellites. Molecular Ecology. 8: 433-442.
[12]
Joleaud L (1925) Les vestiges des anciennes associations biologiques de la Berbérie. In: (edsCattaui A, Douin G) Comptes Rendus Du Congrès International De Géographie. Pp. 128-133. Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, Cairo. April 1925. vol. 4. part 2.
[13]
Taub JM (1977) Geographic distribution and habitat diversity of the Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus. Folia Primatologica. 27 (2): 108-133.
[14]
Sherwin-White A N (1944) Geographical Factors in Roman Algeria. The Journal of Roman Studies, 34 (1-2), 1-10.
[15]
Deag JM (1974) A study of the social behaviour and ecology of the wild barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus, L. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of Bristol.
[16]
Menard N., Amroun M, Mohamed Said R, and. Gautier-Hion A (1986) Status of the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) in Tikjda Forest. Algeria. Primate Conservation. 7: 35-38.
[17]
Menard N.,. Hecham R,. Vallet D,. Chikh H, and. Gautier-Hion A (1990) Grouping patterns of a mountain population of Macaca sylvanus in Algeria-a fission-fusion system? Folia Primatologica, 55: 166-175.
[18]
Bourlière F (1963) Les techniques d’échantillonnage utilisables pour l’étude des populations de grands mammifères sauvages. La Terre et la vie.
[19]
Carpenter C R (1934) A field study of the behavior and social relations of howling monkeys. Comparative psychology monographs.
[20]
Collias N and Southwick C (1952) A field study of population density and social organization in howling monkeys. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 96 (2). 143-156.
[21]
Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour. 49 (3-4): 227-266. Alvarez F. and Heraldo F (1975) Distribution and habitat of the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) in North Morocco. Doiiana Acta Vertebrata, 2:253-259.
[22]
Schaller G B (1983) Mammals and their biomass on a Brazilian ranch. ArqZool. 31: 1-36.
[23]
Aggimarangsee N (1992) Survey for semi-tame colonies of macaques in Thailand. Doctoral dissertation, Mahidol University. Thailand.
[24]
Anonyme 1 (2013) Management plan of the National Parc of Djurdjura.
[25]
Anonyme 3 (2012) Management plan of the National Park of Chrea.
[26]
Anonyme 2 (2004) Management plan of the National Park of Gouraya.
[27]
Deag JM (1977) The status of the Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in captivity and factors influencing its distribution in the wild, pp. 267-287. //; H. S. H. Prince Rainier lll of Monaco, and G. H. Bourne, eds. Primate Conservation. Academic Press, New York.
[28]
Fa JE (1982) A survey of population and habitat of the Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus L. in North Morocco. Biological Conservation, 24: 45-66.
[29]
Fa JE, Taub DM, Menard N, Stewart PJ (1984). The distribution and current status of the Barbary macaque in North Africa. Pages 79-111 in Fa J. E. editor. The Barbary macaque: a case study in conservation. Plenum Press. New York.
[30]
Kowalski K, Rzebick-Kowalska B (1991). Mammals of Algeria-Polish academy of sciences-353 P.
[31]
Mehlman P T (1988) Food resources of the wild Barbary macaquee (Macaca sylvanus) in high-altitude fir forest, Ghomaran Rif, Morocco. Journal of Zoology. 214: 469-90.
[32]
Mehlman PT (1989) Comparative density, demography, and ranging behavior of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in marginal and prime conifer habitats. International Journal of Primatology, 10 (4): 269-292.
[33]
Menard N, Vallet D and Galtier-Hion A (1985) Demographic et reproduction de Macaca sylvanus dans différents habitats en Algérie. Folia Primatologica. 44: 65-81.
[34]
Menard N. and. Vallet D (1997) Behavioral responses of Barbary macaques (Macaca svlvanus) to variations in environmental conditions in Algeria. American Journal of Primatology. 43:285-304.
[35]
Scheffrahn W, Serrida N, Pastorini J, Menard N and Gaci B (1996) Field studies of population genetics in Macacasylvanus of Algeria, abstract no. 240. Abstracts: XVlth Congress of the International Primatological Society. II 16 August 1996. University of Wisconsin Madison. (abstract only, unpaginated).
[36]
Washburn SL and Devore I (2010) The social life of Baboons. In Classic and contemporary readings in physical anthropology. (Sandford M. K and Jackson E. M.). Wadsworth Cengage learning.
[37]
Taub JM (1978) Behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of irregularity in chronic sleep routines. Biological Psychology. 7 (1): 37-53.
Browse journals by subject